Siemens and Halske

Introduction
From the company’s humble beginning as the telegraph-bauanstalt von Siemens and Halske in the year 1847, the company has managed to grow into the second biggest employer in Germany, having more than 427,000 employees worldwide by 2009. The company’s 150 years history is characterized by the ingenious inventions as well as the trend-setting developments. With time, the company diversified their business to include a wide assortment of electrical engineering applications. The company’s earliest specialty was on the heavy current engineering which encompassed finding the means to satisfy the growing power requirements of the contemporary industrial machinery. Through their extensive expertise in electrical engineering, the company expanded its operations to encompass the generation of electric power. Although most of the company’s initial power plants relied on coal for their operations, the company was additionally undertaking major investments in R&D on the alternative sources of energy. The company continued with the diversification of its operations even further from the mid 19810s where it expanded to wind energy. Alternative energy generation technologies continue to be the major priority at Siemens, with their emphasis being on solar as well as wind applications.

The company’s energy sector encompasses five divisions which include renewable energy, fossil fuel generation, oil & gas, power transmission as well as power distribution.

What Problems are they facing In the Case?
The current situation that Siemens is facing relates to the formulation of a strategy to guide in the best position that the company will adopt in their effort to dominate the global renewable energy market. The main hurdles revolve around the fact that the stakes are high as a result of the recent financial turmoil as well as the credit crunch that are making it harder for them to reach fast decisions. The decisions that the company needs to make include whether the company should make its best guess about the future by investing deeply in a limited number of options. Additionally, it is imperative that they decide on whether they should cast their net wider and thus hedge their bets on the diverse types of alternative energy. Siemens needs to decide on whether they should focus on a narrower field and what strategy are they going to adopt in deciding on the type of alternative energy that is going to be their leading technology in the future. It is imperative that they decide on whether it is possible for them to foresee any new disruptive innovations and additionally take advantage of them.

Additionally, they need to decide on whether they can pick any alternative technology and additionally ensure that they make it a winner. The last challenge that Siemens were facing is on deciding the manner they are going to compete in the new fields. The decisions revolve on deciding whether the company shall be going alone, develop proprietary knowledge and consequently keeping the probable profits to themselves, with full knowledge that they run the risk of going too far on the wrong path. Conversely, they need to decide on whether they should base their focus on the acquiring of smaller companies that have developed promising technological advancements, aiding them down the development path. Additionally, it is necessary for Siemens to decide on whether making alliances will make it possible for them to share both the returns as well as the risks with a partner thus becoming their optional solution to the domination of the global alternative energy industry.

Alternative Energy Opportunities Siemens Pursues
There are various types of alternative energy opportunities that Siemens can pursue to realize their global success in the alternative energy sector. The logic behind the clamor for the alternative energies is the use of the natural based resources such as water, the wind, solar radiation or the heat for the creation of energy other than the reliance on the carbon-based fuels.

1. Wind energy is one of the options that Siemens could venture into as a form of alternative source of energy

The common assertion about the wind energy topic is that although it is some disadvantages, it is one of the fasted growing alternate energy sectors and is additionally a trend that should continue. The company has consequently staked a firm presence in the wind energy turbine business, having won some large contracts for the installation of both of as well as onshore wind turbines. On the global arena, the company is the fifth largest installer of wind turbine power by the year 2009, aiming to the second by the year 2012. The portfolio of the company encompasses the diverse stages of wind-turbine development inclusive of the deigning of the components as well as the system, manufacturing, R&D, installation as well as maintenance. These activities have managed to earn the company approximately 19 billion Euros in revenues in the 2008 fiscal year, which accounted for approximately a quarter of the company’s overall revenues. The fact that Siemens has the foundation that is necessary for the development of these alternative energies presents an excellent platform for them to undertake the investment in the wind power energy opportunity.

The additional reason as to why Siemens should venture into the wind power sector is the fact that they have few competitors as a result of the technological complexities of the business. The fact that the market offers a high future potential about the industry growth implies that other competitors are going to enter into the competition mainly from China. However the fact that wind power requires constant maintenance implies that the Siemens will have long-term service contracts, an attribute that makes it instrumental for them to enter into the wind power sector.

Solar energy is the other opportunity that Siemens needs to adopt, considering that the company is already the market leader in the turnkey CSP plants. In this case, Siemens would be able to leverage its plant size, their experience in the development of power plants, as well as the reliability, being a long term service provider effectively. The main reason that the company should target as they undertake this opportunity is the long term servicing required for the generators and turbines long after the completion of the plant’s construction.
Hydropower is the additional opportunity that Siemens needs to capture. The fact that the company has been a strong player in the hydrometric power dams implies that they have the experience that can set them apart from their competition. There numerous opportunities for the company to expand into such as in the US where the company government has designed policies to increase their low costs hydroelectric power production. The US offers excellent expansion opportunities as there are more than 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped capacity of approximately 30,000MW, which offer an opportunity for Siemens to introduce their expertise.
Geothermal power is the additional opportunity that Siemens can exploit because the company has an expansive wealth of expertise on electric energy. In the production of this energy, two shafts are drilled deep into the earth core, with water being pumped in through one shaft and extracting energy through the other shaft inform of steam. The main attribute that makes the technology an excellent option for Siemens is the fact that it can be installed in any area that requires energy. Additionally, geothermal plants need minimal amounts of fresh water as well as external fuel sources and their layouts makes them highly scalable.
How Aggressively Should Siemens Pursue These Opportunities?
Siemens should need to pursue these opportunities with aggressiveness. For instance on the wind power opportunity, they should attack the Europe market with utmost aggressiveness considering that they are among the best in the region as well as the fact that are minimal transportation costs. About the expansion to other regions in the world, they should be the first movers of the technologies as they already possess the technology as well as the R&D attributes. Waiting to introduce their technologies will only serve to diminish the market for their alternative energy. The advantage that makes it imperative for Siemens to be first movers of these alternative energy technology opportunities is they already have a reputation for being the best in the world as well as the fact that they have exceptional R&D strategies in the same sector.

Should They Go It Alone, Form Strategic Alliances Or Pursue Acquisitions?

On whether Siemens needs to undertake these opportunities either alone, form alliances or acquisitions, various factors are taken into consideration. In the case of wind energy, Siemens possess the best technology, but the costs of transporting these turbines are very high, a factor that limits their expansions. The fact that there are few established competitors in the industry for Siemens to acquire or engage in alliances implies that their best option is to set up industries in their desired markets.

Regarding solar energy, the fact that the company has the best turnkey CSP plants in the world makes acquiring the existing companies in their desired markets the best option as they will not have to share their profits. Siemens has minimal technologies in the hydropower generation and thus pursuing alliances with the established players in their desired markets is a worthwhile plan where they will be supplying technologies and expertise. Geothermal powers involve minimal costs and through their technology as their main bargaining, Siemens should enter their desired markets alone.

Conclusion
Siemens is facing a critical point in their survival in the alliterative energy production sector. The company possesses some of the best technologies in the world relating to the production alternative energy, and the contemporary market challenges are making it imperative for them to make decisions that will see them enter excel in the sector. Some of the decisions that the company has to make revolve around the number as well as the type of alternative energies they will be pursuing. From the assessment of the case, it is clear that wind power, solar energy, geothermal power as well as hydropower present the company with the best opportunities to succeed in the alternative energy markets.

Changing roles of correctional officers

Introduction
Before the 1960s, roles of correctional officers were custody-oriented. Personnel selection standards were low and in, many cases they never existed. Candidates for correctional officer jobs were only required to have minimal education level and in some prisons, education wasn’t considered in hiring. The main incentive for correctional officer job remained security provided by the civil service employment in an employment that many found appealing as well as lucrative as compared to farming or manufacturing jobs. Individuals were also forced work as prison officers by unfortunate circumstance like job scarcity unavailability of job scarcity, layoffs, injuries, or as a result of their failure in their primary occupation choice. As a consequence, the typical correctional officer was a rural, male with little or no education. They were also politically conservative characterized by brutality and they in many case proved slow in accepting change. Many came to correctional jobs at relatively mature ages after success in the civilian life while other had retired from military. Training in all cases was done the job and always involved nothing on top of a recruit being handed cell block keys and t instructed to quickly learn the demands of the job (Josi & Sechrest, 1998). The custody- focused correctional officer role definition remained unambiguous. Their roles were to keep security as well as control by enforcing institutional regulations. The accomplish ability to this goal based on unchallenged authority to accuse and punish prisoners from violating violations rules without regarding the due process as well as inmate rights. The control approaches to prisoners relied on physical coercion as well as discipline.

Correctional Officers were therefore referred to as always guards since guarding prisoners was their sole expected role. As a consequence, there exist a widespread public view that correctional officer have low intelligence, alienated, cynical, brutal, burned out, alienated stressed, and their role is to repress minority people. However, commencing 1960s a wide range of prisoner rehabilitation programs became introduced in prison institutions that historically were viewed custody and control as only organizational goal. The new rehabilitation emphasis also introduced an expectation that correctional officers were to go beyond their vividly defined security tasks and assume the much more ambiguous responsibility of human service-oriented workers who would help highly trained treatment professionals in prisoners’ rehabilitation. Rehabilitation introduction in [prisons developed an ambiguous social organization through the introduction of sets of contradictory objectives. The custody goal requires the maintenance of enough social distance between correctional officers and prisoners and avoiding informal relationships, affective ties as well as discretionary enforcement of rules. However, treatment goal demand relaxed discipline, informal relationships minimizing social distance, affective ties as well as the exercising of discretionary rule enforcement depending on particular inmate characteristics as well as circumstances. Punitive regulatory policies became subordinated to an expectation that correctional were to be human-oriented and flexible. Many correctional facilities currently impress the double roles of custody and treatment (McMinn, 2010). As a result, correctional officers are now called change agents when are supposed to utilize their discretion to help in rehabilitation of inmates while at the same time keeping security through enforcement of rules. Simultaneous handling of custody and treatment generates conflict characterized by some uncertainty since correctional officers can be disciplined if they violate the institutional policies that are aimed at rehabilitating inmates.

Introduction of Prisoner Rehabilitation in the US
Introducing rehabilitation coincided by many USA supreme court ruling which provided inmates with more civil rights while at the same time reducing the ability of correctional officer against reliance on punitive controls. The outcome was due process- focused disciplinary hearings, abolishment of using isolation as disciplinary approach and the creation of formal prisoner’s grievance mechanisms. The decision by the court significantly reduced the powers of correctional officers while at the same time providing inmates with strong countervailing rights. These changes in powers created for officers in correctional institutions view of loss of control and a perception that managers and treatment professionals emerged more respect for prisoners than them. As a result, the perception continue to make correctional officers view themselves as unfairly restated thus generating great ingrained frustration and lack of appreciation by superiors (Parker, 2007). Among the significant outcomes of the perception was that the managers as well as the professional were never at par with the correctional officers. On the eve of the 1970s, the US federal law gave the correctional officers the power to unionize. As a result, the joined strong national unions including the American Federation of states, county as well as municipals workers whose management has perfectly challenged many management policies perceived as not being in the best interest of their rank and file. Such unions are critical since they have power to influence management resource allocation making salaries as well as benefits rising drastically. With such efforts, correctional officers continue to serve under the new guidelines while working with inmates. Therefore, the main change in the role of these officers is simply the shift from authority to service in changing inmates from criminality to harmless persons in the society. The reason behind this move was that harsh punitive measures would do more harm to an offender as compared to the perceived benefits.

Inmate Rehabilitation
Inmate rehabilitation is the process of re-integrating a convicted person into the society with the primary objective to counter reoffending or criminal recidivism. Rehabilitation has been a central goal of correctional system. Its goal rests on an assumption that offenders can be treated and returns to law abiding lifestyle. It includes a great array of initiatives such as, substance abuse, mental health as well as educational services. Additionally, specialty initiatives are developed for sex offenders, women and parolees. Despite their original barbaric roles in the medieval dungeon and torture chamber, from the 18th century, correctional officers have combined punishment element with rehabilitation element to assist prisoners (Morris, & Rothman, 1995). As Michel Foucault the French philosopher puts it, ‘punishment shifted from disciplining the body to disciplining the soul”. Rehabilitation of inmates has remained a critical feature of modern criminal justice system directed at reforming both the character of prisoners and preventing recidivism. Many types of research reveal that exposing prisoners to harsh conditions hardens them into harder criminals. Punitive measures make them develop a negative attitude towards the public and more so the victim and upon release, they easily reoffended as a response to the pain realized in prison. Research also reveals that rehabilitation usually makes offenders understand and appreciate their wrongdoing and in the end, they decide to become law abiding. It is evident that chances of recidivism are low among ex-convicts who went through rehabilitative programs as compared to those who go through punitive controls.

Roles of Correctional Officers in Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation as a changing role of a correctional officer presents various roles to them. Some are traditional with punitive dimension while others are humane and rehabilitative in nature. The roles include the inmate security, offender counseling, religious involvement, vocational training, needs assessment, linkage to specialized services and security of detention facilities. These roles are discussed as follows;

Inmate Security and Rehabilitation
Within penal institutions, correctional officers serve as voices of authority, while at the same time ensuring safety and welfare inmates. As courageous law enforcement service providers, they disrupt violence and confrontations among inmates to ensure order and help in rehabilitating prisoners. Over 434, 870 correctional officers in U.S. as of 2011, correctional officers represent one of the critical components of US criminal justice system. Correctional officers prevent exploitation among prisoners while at the same time protecting them from the angry public. Correctional officers instill peace in the penal institutions by suppressing confrontations among prisoners. They also prevent illicit materials which threaten rehabilitation from entering the penal institutions. This practice is very critical in producing an environment that enables healing from criminality to law abiding life. Research reveals that penal institutions characterized by calmness produce an environment that rehabilitates inmate. Similarly, research shows that penal institutions with chaos and fights, always promotes recidivism among inmates. Therefore, correctional officer plays a critical role in protecting the rights and freedoms of inmates which are key in the rehabilitation process.

Offender Counseling and Rehabilitation
In the rehabilitation process, correctional officers play a critical role of acting as a counselor. As counselors, they take prisoner as clients who need their assistance. Counseling helps many inmates to develop abilities of problem solving and decision making which are critical in reforming the prisons. Much research reveals that counseling dome by correctional officers greatly reduced recidivism among inmates. Counseling also makes inmates find meaning in life and the end; they always come out as law abiding citizens (Robinson & Crow, 2009). Counseling offered by correctional officers’ trains’ inmates to address problems of anxiety which is a key factor that motivates crime. Chemical dependency counseling offered by correctional officers enables prisoners with challenges of substance abuse to get therapeutic help. Counseling also provides relief which is critical I offender rehabilitation. Encouragements from correctional officers make the offender take the sentence positively and come out as a reformed person.

Religious Involvement and Rehabilitation
Correctional institutions continue to utilize research in developing a more constructive alternative for prisoners. Correctional officer involves themselves religious instruction to help prisoners. As correctional officers promote religious involvement among prisoners, many of the prisoners find inner hope as well as meaning in life. In the end, they reform into good citizens who pose no threat to the society upon release (Craig, In Dixon & Gannon, 2013). Many studies reveal that inmates who get involved in religion offend rarely. Re-incarceration among offender who was much involved in religion in many cases is low. The reason is that religion shape people’s meditation, and it easily alters the personal perception among offenders. Therefore, as correctional; officer promotes religious involvement among inmates, it gives them a good basis to rehabilitate since many religions instill morals.

Inmate Vocational Training and Rehabilitation
Correctional officers play the critical role in rehabilitating inmates by giving inmates vocational training. Bearing in mind that there are many factors that promote crime, unemployment or poverty always accounts as major factors. Therefore offering vocational training to inmates empowers the inmate upon release (Lin, 2000). Such training is critical in that they provide a ground that an inmate would rely on for his legitimate survival. Installing such skills among prisoners gives them an opportunity to survive when he is released. This program is a critical rehabilitation tool to inmates with poverty or lack of employment crimes. Correctional officers, therefore, act as trainers to prisoners making rehabilitation objectives possible. They provide trustworthy advice in the effort to improve inmates’’ lives. Many correction departments continue to recognize that inmates who perfectly participate in the programs are more likely to conform to the law whenever they complete their term in penal institutions.

Prisoner Needs Assessment and Rehabilitation
Correctional officers also help inmates who are eager to develop their futures positively by assisting them to choose institutional programs that benefit or suits them. The assessment also helps in identifying barriers to successful rehabilitation (Herberts, 1998). Through communication as well as building relationships with inmates, correctional officers manage to get insights into factors that forced the prisoner into crime. Studies show that approximately 80 percent of the prisoner is dependent on drugs; therefore, convincing them to join appropriate cognitive retraining and substance abuse counseling produces uncountable positive effects. Therefore carrying out need assessment of prisoners to identify best interventions is a critical role played by correctional officers in the process of making rehabilitation successful.

Inmate Specialized Services Linkage and Rehabilitation
The other rehabilitative responsibility of correctional officers is that of acting as links with other agencies both in and outside the community. Penal institution always works with different partners in helping offenders. These partners play critical roles in providing specialized services that are not located within boundaries of penal institutions. Specialized services may include medication, business support among others. Upon completion of vocational training and release, some ex-prisoners may need assistance to start life (Great Britain & Beith, 2011). Therefore, correctional officers become the link between the ex-prisoner and the service provider. In many cases, correctional officers are allowed to work outside of the penal facilities to link the newly released inmates with specialized treatment programs, halfway houses as well as community organizations. Correctional officers are working in prisons also assist in the rehabilitation of inmates by communicating the needs as well as risks to the parole officers, parole boards, judges or to the probation officers to help the offender.

Security of Detention Facilities and Rehabilitation
Maintaining the prison remains critical in the rehabilitation of inmates. The reason is that a single breach in the prison security may lead to contraband drugs, weapons as well as communication devices into the correctional facility, which may hamper rehabilitation. Additionally, compromises on the borders may lead to prisoners’ escape which might destruct rehabilitation (The United States, 2008). Correctional officers always identify such threats and give immediate remedies. Correctional officers ensure the facility is safe for the safety of inmates. Safety protects the offender from other influences in the free society that might tempt him into criminality. This safety is paramount in facilitating an environment for rehabilitation.

Limitations Rehabilitation as a Changing Role of Correctional Officers
Apart from prisoners profiting from rehabilitation as a changing role of correctional officers, it seems to make some inmates worse criminals. Rehabilitation presents leniency of the law against crime. Therefore, many prisoners always take advantage of this role to pretend and get released. Research consistently continues to show that time spent in custody does not successfully rehabilitate many inmates, and that majority of criminals return to crime almost immediately. It is argued that many prisoners learn new and sophisticated ways of committing crimes while they are in prison with fellow convicts (Parker, 2007). This situation also offers them the opportunity to make connections and become involved in group crimes. Rehabilitation programs can also make prisoners cheat to be granted parole.research also reveal that rehabilitation seems to make prison life interesting to some criminals since there is no serious punitive element as before. Rehabilitation also diminishes the main role of punishment. They, therefore, offend immediately they are released. Rehabilitation can also pose a threat of increased crime by encouraging potential criminals. They end up offending since they are sure that the penal life is lenient.

Conclusion
The introduction of issues of human rights remains the genesis of the shift in the roles of correctional officers. Promoted by global activism, rehabilitation remains a key role in the penal sector. Despite I t attracting varied perceptions, its idea so handling offenders serving custodial sentences with human remains something to comment. Contrary, its implementation potentially impacts crime control both negatively and positively. From the positive side, rehabilitation can address habitual offending particularly with inmates who learn from their mistakes. On the other hand, it can promote reoffending apart from having ability to motivate potential criminals. The reason for this is that, people will find prison life comfortable and therefore making them not to fear reoffending. Despite entrenching rehabilitation in social as well as criminal justice policy, the notion that penal institutions never intend to rehabilitate but to punish and protect the public maintains considerable public support in many areas. Improved conditions, as well as opportunities for rehabilitation in penal institutions, generate complaints that current life behind bars remains soft and similar to holiday camping. Resentment from the public also remains fired by the deficits in providing similar services for community rehabilitation. Drug rehabilitation, as an example, is greatly perceived to be easily accessible inside penal institutions than in the outside. Nevertheless, there are many criticisms about the rehabilitation level occurring in prisons, mostly because of lack of funding for rehabilitation programmes as well as prison overcrowding, which hinders effective implementation of rehabilitation. The achievement that penal institutions achieve is hindered further by high number of prisoners lacking primary skills while others suffer from social as well as psychological problems. Many prisoners get released without places to live, thus worsening setbacks of homelessness. Prisons also have cases of mental health problems and drug problems making the efforts of rehabilitation hard. Whatever rehabilitation happens inside the penal institutions, many ex- convicts experience some difficulty in reintegrating back to the society because of community attitude. To conclude, rehabilitation as a changing role for correctional officer remains a good initiative that can help some offenders to come out reformed. In their effort to attain its objectives, there is a need for resources and cooperation from other stakeholders as well as offenders themselves. If this role is not critically examined and implemented well, it easily generates repeat offenders.

Students Serve up Success at Annual Convocation Ceremony in Toronto

Yadavan Ponnusamy and Koshaye Bodloo are friends, colleagues and now fellow alumni. As newly appointed co-managers of a Quebec-area restaurant, both men attribute their career success to their college education. On the evening of Sept. 15, 2018, Pennusamy and Bodloo celebrated their accomplishments at Evergreen College’s convocation ceremony amid friends, family and approximately 26 other graduating classmates.
Speaking before the convocation ceremony, Ponnusamy and Bodloo both said their college education prepared them with the inter-personal skills needed to succeed in the workplace. As a graduates of the Hospitality Management program, both men spent two academic years learning the technical skills and communication requirements needed in their field.
“In our industry, problems come up. We need to know how to deal with them. We learned about the people skills required to succeed,” Bodloo said.
“It was a good experience both mentally and physically,” he added, noting that the college’s small class sizes enabled him to receive individualized “person to person” attention.
Prior to commencing their studies in Toronto, both men spoke to friends in their home country of Mauritius who had studied previously at Evergreen College. The college and its Hospitality Management program came highly recommended to them.
Their transition to Toronto took approximately three months from the time their applications were submitted. Bodloo and Ponnusamy were fortunate to have friends living north of the city where they studied. Both said their migration was seamless, and Ponnusamy attributed the process to part of his learning experience.
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“The program at Evergreen taught us leadership skills,” he said. “We learned communication skills and how to lead a team…the instructors showed us the way.”
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The college’s career services were also instrumental in heightening their inter-personal skills. Prior to being hired in their current jobs, Bodloo said they had the opportunity to have their resumes reviewed by their instructors. They also took part in mock interviews.
“The instructors would pretend to be restaurant managers and we had to go through an interview and presentation,” he said. “We had to go through everything and show them how we would lead a team.”
Now, with diplomas in Hospitality Management, Bodloo and Ponnusamy are serving up success in the restaurant industry.