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The effect of teachers’ attitude toward inclusion on the practice and success levels of children with and without disabilities in physical education

Problem the study

The law and regulations have provided directions about the inclusion of children with special needs in physical educators teaching classes. This inclusion has caused a tremendous challenge to the physical educators that work strenuously to meet the needs of the children. The concern is about the teachers’ attitude impacts towards the success of the children since they are striving too much.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of children with disabilities (mild to moderate mental disabilities) in the physical education setting to leverage the levels of success attained by the students in comparison to the peers without disabilities.

Research questions
The mode acquiring the data that was considered by the researcher was the PEA TID-III questionnaire. The questionnaire contained a sequence of statements that prompted the teachers to express their attitude belief about teaching the persons with disabilities in their frequent physical education classes. The research questions were confined towards the investigation of the teacher attitude toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes.

The quality and assurance of results
The results of the study were established with the method of collecting data which was the use of a questionnaire. The PEA TID-III questionnaire validity was constructed through the analysis of the principal components of the study. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by estimating the coefficient alpha thus providing valuable and reliable results.

Conclusions
The findings of the study provide a recommendation that the child with disability performance can be linked with the relationship of the teacher attitude towards the child inclusion and the teacher effectiveness. The teachers with positive attitudes at all times gave the disabled children more practice attempts thus working towards the higher level of success. The professionals should consider incorporating the classes that handle the inclusionary issues as well.

Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) definition of validity

The study proofs to remain within the line of observing the principles outlined by Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) in their definition of validity. The researcher undertook the study in a better simplified way by getting confined towards the teacher approaches of conducting the physical education classes for disabled students. Every aspect considered within the study got related to the teachers’ attitude.

The theoretical and observational levels of the study
The study was confined towards the determination of the factors that affects the teacher attitudes towards the students’ performance in physical education. The study drew facts about the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical and how the educator attitudes affect their level of performance. The method of using the PEA TID-III questionnaire provided the mode of confining the participating within the scope of study about the beliefs of the teacher towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in the physical education classes. The study provides a way of understanding of the effects of the negative and positive attitude on the disabled child performance in their endeavors.

The paper objective

The journal was objective. The study was driven by the fact that there is an increase in the belief that the teacher attitudes have a direct influence on the success of the children with disabilities being included in the regular classes. The objective was to provide the understanding of the teacher attitude towards the proof of the belief thus the research was after the delivery of an empirical evidence of the same.

Rigor assurance
The assurance of rigor is well displayed at some point of the study, but at the same time, the study fails to provide the credibility of the responses since the questionnaires were mailed. The possibility of mailing to wrong persons affects the validity of the results. However, the study is defined with a thoroughly reviewed literature review that provides the understanding of the research thus easily appreciating the objective and the purpose of the study.

Recommendations for the development of research findings
The research findings were based on the initial description of the purpose of the research. The basis of developing the findings was to provide the proof over the belief that the teacher attitude towards the children with disabilities has a direct impact on their performances at the class level. Therefore, the research findings were confined towards the subject of the matter.

The quality of the methods used
The methods adopted gave the participants the best way of providing their views with the elimination of anxiety. The questionnaire provided the best data that enabled the researcher to draw the relevant and valid conclusions that provided the best way of understanding the teacher attitude towards the level of success of disabled children in their inclusion in physical education classes.

Opposing arguments and a rationale for the findings in light of the arguments

The descriptive analysis provides the results that seem to final to conquer with the negation that negative attitudes go towards providing the opposite of the positive attitudes. Although the opposing argumentation is not well displayed within the study, there is the slight understanding of the opposing findings that later proves to be valid. The students without disabilities have a higher percentage of successful attempts over disabled ones when under a teacher with positive attitudes despite the fact that the teacher provided the higher percentage of attempts to disabled students.

The alternate and opposing perspectives presented

The alternative presented aspect is about the administration and management of the institutions. The aspects concerning the draw of truth about the recruitment of teachers basing on some factors that are less associated with an attitude such as competence, experience, and others thus influence the disabled child. Such factors also influence the performance level of the children with disabilities.

The common and diverging themes evident
The common aspect of the study is about the teacher attitude about the inclusion of the child with and without disability in physical education classes. However, the study settles towards the provision of understanding that the teacher attitude well influences the performance of the student and the e focus is taken to the disabled child. The teacher attitude influence over child performance is an aspect that has dominated the study, but there is no other theme that is introduced in the research.

The overarching concepts in the field of education are addressed
The law and regulation have come in to provide the equality of the child education development and thus resulting in the inclusion of disabled children in physical education classes. The literature provides the evidence of how the world is giving opportunities to children with disabilities. The study well provides the information about the development of the child regardless of the ability since disability is not inability. However, the study highlights some of the influencing factors towards the disabled child education development and the key factor is the teacher rather educator attitude.

The validity of future research
The future research is not well highlighted within the study, but the possible intended outlined by the researcher was the determination of strategies of dealing with the inclusionary issues. The aspect is great towards ensuring that the practice is well absorbed within institutions. The recommendation highlights the need for focusing on the professional incorporation within the education classes for disabled persons.

The limitations of the study
The study is chained within a thorough literature review that provides a line of showing the negligence of limitations of the study. Regardless of the researcher failing to highlight t the challenges experienced, the observation can show the issue to do with the observation approach limitation during the examination of the student’s responses in the field.

Elementary physical education teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs: A qualitative investigation

Problem the study
The issue outlined within the study is the determination of the implications that the physical education teacher education (PETE) programs influence their products in the child development. The law has identified the need for including children with special needs in the general physical education and the concern is about the deliverables of the teachers. The teacher attitude has been a concern, and thus the focus is to study how the teacher attitude affects their teaching mode in result evaluating this influence on the child performance.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the research was to identify the teachers with positive attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities using the Physical Education Attitudes Towards Individuals with disability (PEATID) approach. At the same time, it aimed at investigating the formation of the teachers’ attitude and how the attitudes affected their teaching of the disabled students.

Nebosh Training for Risk Assessment and Management: Risk Mitigation Strategies in Nigeria

In Nigeria, as in many other countries, effective risk assessment and management are critical for ensuring the safety and well-being of individuals, communities, and businesses. The National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH) offers comprehensive training programs designed to equip professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to identify, assess, and mitigate risks effectively. In this article, we will explore the importance of Nebosh training in lagos for risk assessment and management in Nigeria, along with strategies for mitigating risks in various sectors.

Understanding Nebosh Training
NEBOSH is a globally recognized organisation that provides training, qualifications, and certifications in occupational health, safety, and environmental management. Nebosh training programs cover a wide range of topics, including risk assessment, hazard identification, safety management systems, and emergency preparedness. These programs are designed to enhance the competency and proficiency of professionals working in diverse industries and sectors.

Nebosh Training in Nigeria: Enhancing Safety Standards
In Nigeria, Nebosh training plays a crucial role in enhancing safety standards and promoting a culture of risk awareness and mitigation. Professionals from various fields, including construction, oil and gas, manufacturing, healthcare, and hospitality, undergo Nebosh training to acquire the necessary skills to identify potential hazards, assess risks, and implement effective control measures. By investing in Nebosh training in nigeria, organisations demonstrate their commitment to prioritising safety and protecting their employees and assets.

Nebosh Training in Lagos, Abuja, and Across Nigeria
Nebosh training programs are available in major cities across Nigeria, including Lagos, Abuja, and other metropolitan areas. These training sessions are conducted by accredited Nebosh training providers who adhere to strict standards set by Nebosh. Participants have the opportunity to learn from experienced instructors, engage in practical exercises and case studies, and gain valuable insights into best practices for risk assessment and management.

Risk Mitigation Strategies in Nigeria
Effective risk mitigation is essential for minimising the likelihood and severity of accidents, injuries, and incidents in various sectors. In Nigeria, where factors such as infrastructure challenges, environmental risks, and regulatory complexities pose unique challenges, implementing robust risk mitigation strategies is paramount. Some key risk mitigation strategies applicable to different sectors include:

Construction Industry: In the construction industry, where workers are exposed to various hazards such as falls, electrocution, and falling objects, implementing safety protocols and providing adequate training and personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical. Nebosh-trained professionals can conduct thorough risk assessments, implement control measures, and monitor compliance to ensure a safe working environment.
Oil and Gas Sector: The oil and gas sector in Nigeria is inherently high-risk due to the nature of operations and the presence of flammable substances. Nebosh training equips professionals with the skills to identify potential hazards such as fire, explosions, and toxic gas exposure, and implement preventive measures such as regular equipment inspections, safety drills, and emergency response plans.
Manufacturing Industry: In the manufacturing industry, where machinery, chemicals, and heavy equipment are prevalent, the risk of accidents and occupational illnesses is significant. Nebosh-trained professionals can conduct risk assessments to identify hazards associated with machinery operation, chemical handling, and ergonomic factors, and implement control measures such as machine guarding, proper ventilation, and ergonomic workstation design.
Conclusion
Nebosh training plays a crucial role in enhancing risk assessment and management practices in Nigeria across various industries. By investing in Nebosh training, organizations can empower their workforce with the knowledge and skills necessary to identify, assess, and mitigate risks effectively. From construction sites to oil rigs to manufacturing facilities, Nebosh-trained professionals are instrumental in promoting safety, preventing accidents, and protecting lives and livelihoods. In a rapidly evolving and challenging environment like Nigeria, Nebosh training in abuja serves as a cornerstone for building safer, healthier, and more resilient workplaces and communities.

Engineering R and D Services Outsourcing Market – Outlook and Analysis for Future Growth

Global engineering R&D services outsourcing market is anticipated to reach more than USD 650 billion by 2025 according to a new report published by Polaris Market Research. The major factors which are driving this market is the access to low cost highly skilled resources which can work towards complex tasks of not only designing and testing but also on validation, simulation and execution. Companies are moving from business process outsourcing to knowledge process outsourcing and major industry verticals such as automotive, consumer electronics, semiconductors, aerospace and telecom are providing huge opportunities to the consulting companies.

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The traction of offshore outsourcing can be seen owing to the low cost and added capabilities from the service providers. There are dedicated ER&D service providers which are not only providing basic services but also, they are jointly investing with the companies to expand their businesses in growing markets and geographies. Companies are also focusing on expanding their market reach along with faster turnaround times from these providers. These are some of the major advantages for the companies to outsource their services.

The market for ER&D services has evolved from outsourcing of simple low-cost engineering services to capacity augmentation. At present companies are focusing more on reduced timelines, increased productivity and quality of outsourcing services. Countries such as India, China are among the biggest markets for ER&D service providers. Growing number of engineering professionals every year coupled with low cost of service have pushed the market for ER&D Outsourcing in this region.

Companies in North America and Europe are considered to spend more on these services however, Asia Pacific is the largest market for the ER&D service providers. Countries such as India and China have pushed the market for ER&D and are estimated to continue the trend over the forecast period. Applications in the automotive, telecom, consumer electronics and aerospace segments is considered to have large market share in 2017. There has been an increase in adoption in the offshore services as compared to onsite service due to low costs and highly skilled professionals on the offshore locations. The offshore outsourcing type would grow at a higher rate during the forecast period as compared to its counterpart.

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The major restrains this market is facing is the intellectual property theft specifically during the offshore outsourcing. This is the major problem faced by many companies, which eventually generates a loss for these companies. However due to strict laws and changing regulations, this challenge is expected to overcome during the forecast period. Major players which are profiled in the study include HCL Technologies Limited, IAV GmbH, P+Z Engineering GmbH, Tata Consulting Services Limited, Wipro Limited, EDAG Engineering GmbH, ASAP Holdings GmbH, FEV Group, Cybage software, Kistler Instruments AG, Infosys Ltd, among others.

About Polaris Market Research & Consulting

Polaris Market Research is a global market research and consulting company. We provide unmatched quality of offerings to our clients present globally. The company specializes in providing exceptional market intelligence and in-depth business research services for our clientele spread across different enterprises. We at Polaris are obliged to serve our diverse customer base present across the industries of healthcare, technology, semi-conductors and chemicals among various other industries present around the world. We strive to provide our customers with updated information on innovative technologies, high growth markets, emerging business environments and latest business-centric applications, thereby helping them always to make informed decisions and leverage new opportunities.