Literature review on SQL

Companies are involved in different operations that result in the generation of information. The information is never discarded rather it should be kept for the future references. The question to ask is how to keep the data. The database concept came previously with the usage of the file database until we came to settle on the sequential databases. The primary databases are the SQL databases and the Oracle databases that do perform the same job but with the application of different principles in the implementation of the functionalities. A database is described as the collection of related data that is organized and stored at a collective place for easily accessing, management and administration of the data.

History of databases and SQL
Database came in to ensure that the data stored can be retrieved or shared amongst the users without the know that there is sharing. In 1970, Dr. Codd published a paper “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks” that was the building block of the relational database system. He described a new structure for data within the database that brought the relational database system that is still in use up to current (Sumathi & Esakkirajan, 2007). On the other side, Chamberlin and Boyce (employees at IBM Corporation, Inc) developed a query language they referred to as Specifying Queries As Relational Expressions (SQUARE). The language did apply the set theory a predicate mathematics to have the select of data from the database. SQUARE acted as the building block for another language (Instructional Software Research and Development Group., 2006).

In 1974, Chamberlin and Boyce refined the SQUARE language to publish the Structured English Query Language (SEQUEL). The refinement focused on the data retrieval from the database, and they had taken the focus to applying the top-down programming that required the linear notation, and readable programs which are easy to modify and maintain. The result of the implemented got the description of the SEQUEL as structured (Chamberlin & Boyce, 1974). In 1979, SQL got into its existence by dropping the vowels EUE, the SEQUEL was found out to be a registered mark trade for Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Company that forced IBM to change the SEQUEL to SQL.

SQL Architectural framework
The architecture of Pl/SQL describes its working with the Oracle. The PL/SQL block is made up procedural and SQL statements as it describes how the SQL in Oracle interprets the PL/SQL block. The PL/SQL architecture contains the block, engine, and the Oracle server. The engine is concerned with the compiling and executing the SQL block, and the PL/SQL engine contains the PL/SQL procedural statement executor that executes the procedural statements. On the other side, the Oracle server contains the SQL statement executor that executes the SQL statement (Rosenzweig & Silvestrova, 2004). Therefore, the PL/SQL engine is in coordination with the Oracle Server for purposes of processing the block.

According to Instructional Software Research and Development Group (2006), SQL statements can be classified either;

Data Definition Language (DDL)
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Data Query Language (DQL)
Data Control Language (DCL)
Data Administration Statements (DAS)
Transaction Control Statements (TCS)
Features of SQL

Structured Query Language (SQL) has got developed and meets the ANSI and the ISO standards as a computer language that can use in creation and manipulation of hierarchical databases. SQL has the capability of allowing the proficient user to undertake some administration activities such as create some views, update, delete records and retrieve the data from the database. It is very simple and easy for one to learn because it is sequential and structured in nature and it is to work with some other desirable database programs such as MS Access, and Sybase (Groff & Weinberg, n.d).

SQL database, the SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008, have the data mining architecture that enabled the models to enhance business intelligence. Business intelligence components can easily get integrated into SQL server that includes the On-line analytical processing (OLAP), SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) and the reporting services (Crat, Tang & MacLennan, 2013). SQL has been on developed and currently exhibit some attractive, unique features of supporting character sets, collations, and translations. A transaction can roll back on save points. The database language supports Boolean data type and large objects of binary and the character LOBs (Kreines, 2000).

Benefits of SQL
SQL does not require navigational instructions as it is coded without embedded data that simplifies the retrieval of data.
The applications applying the SQL are portable as well as the language gives a high level of abstraction, and its internal implementation makes it independent.
SQL is simple to learn and easily handle complex situations at the same time the language has no ambiguity about the way a query interprets the data.
The SQL is used in definition of the data structure; control the accessibility of data, delete, insertion and modification of data
Proposal

Iteration 1: Orientation
The orientation program captured my attention by familiarizing me to a few identities. I first had to sign the internship acceptance form from the Human Resource department after which I am to be directed to my designated department. Within the working point, I will introduce myself to the work mates and move around to have the familiarization of the company strategic location. I will visit the specified departments starting with the operational section from where I will have to understand the company core business operations, procedures, principles and the goals to achieve. The working conditions will also be provided to avoid the misrepresentation at working point.

Iteration 2: Understanding the SQL concepts
After the understanding of the company operations and my expectations, I will take some critical time to have the deep understanding of the SQL concepts. Databases go by experience and understanding of what the requirements are according to the company procedures. During the iteration, I will make some consultation from my working mates so that I take to know where I need to take the concentration of understanding. Secondly, I will undertake some online research to have the deep experience of coding and the most critical operations of the SQL. The model accordance to the Model will be under study. The personal studying will further involve the data analytics and the understanding of the big data. The iteration will be the preparation for the training that I will be taken through by the assigned supervisor. At the end of the iteration, I would have sharpened my knowledge and have the best theoretical understanding of SQL as far as the database is concerned.

Iteration 3: Training
The training will go through the application of the SQL and the implementation of the Oracle databases. The training will be conducted primarily to have the clear, practical understanding of the Oracle database and the SQL database. Define the principles of the application modes of the databases. The training will be conducted through the labs of the company where normal staff training and seminars take place. The process will be the preparation of the primary object of designing a database exercising gall the database administration and maintenance. Therefore, by the end of the training session, I would have gained the practical skills and experience of database administration.

Iteration 4: SQL Database designing
The iteration will get me through the steps prior designing and development of a database. First, I will have to undertake some feasibility so that I may be able to define the requirements of the company and the end users to be adhered to during the SQL database development. After then the designing of the application will take its course by applying primarily all the knowledge of SQL database to have the database that meets the determined requirements after that the last iteration will follow.

Iteration 5: SQL database administration and management

The iteration is the other critical activity that I will be involved. The primary expectations are ensuring that the database is up to date the demands of the end users are accomplished. During the process I will be updating the database, deleting some entries. Furthermore, create the views procedures and the queries as well as reports and more so enhance the security within the database. Actually, at the end of it all, I would have got the best knowledge than ever that will get me into the market with the desirable experience and skills.

Bottle Water vs.Tap Water

Introduction
The fact that it is critical to keep the body extremely hydrated at all times goes without any debate. However, which is the best water to consume? Traditionally, tap water had been the norm in many offices, homes, and schools. However, bottled water has become popular with the increased notion that the water is purer and cleaner than tap water. On the other hand, bottle water can be contaminated thus leaving tap water as the best alternative. The decision to consume tap or bottled water is a personal choice that is supported by numerous factors. Tap water is, however, a better alternative than bottled water as even most of the bottled water are collected from taps and not springs or glaciers.

Body

People with a preference for bottled water believe that the water is purer than tap water. Water manufacturing companies have been able to convince their consumers that their water is collected from pure an unpolluted areas such as spring water and glaciers. Therefore, water from the glaciers and springs is purer than tap water since tap water has to pass through underground pipes and systems thus increasing the risk of contamination (Brebbia, 2015). For instance, the risk of having traces of lead in tap water increases if the water system has aging pipes. Unfortunately, the perception of pure and unpolluted water cannot be validated as unscrupulous water manufacturers can also label and packaged tap water and deceive consumers that the water is pure.

The preference for bottled water over tap water also arises due to the taste. A majority of people who consume bottled water argue that the water tastes better than tap water. Bottled water passes through a series of purification processes thus the minimal risk of experiencing tastes and odors. In contrast, tap water is in an almost natural form thus the risk of experiencing an “earthy” taste. Moreover, there is a risk of rusting of the water pipes thus increasing the occurrence of a “taste” in the water. Bottled water is processed and tested before it is released to the consumers. A guarantee of quality is therefore assured.

The preference for bottled over tap water has also been due to concerns over the safety of the tapped water. A majority of community water systems fail to meet the standards of the safe drinking water Act thus increased the risk of exposure to unsafe water. Moreover, there are concerns that tap water may be more at risk of exposure to germs than bottled water. Water running from taps comes through an underground water system thus the risk of contamination especially in the case of breakages (Gleick, 2010).

On the other hand, proponents of tap water argue that bottled water is an unnecessary expense. Water is a basic necessity for survival thus there is no need for the commodity to be expensive and unaffordable to many consumers. The cost of bottled water is high as the manufacturers have to factor in production and transportation costs. Some manufacturers also strive to make quick profits thus over price their bottled water. In contrast, the cost of tap water is quite low thus making the crucial commodity affordable and accessible to everyone.

Tap water is also a better alternative to bottled water because it has the least negative impact. For bottled water, the manufacturers have to mass produce bottles. Therefore, millions of plastic bottles are then released to the consumers. Without a proper recycling system, the millions of plastic bottles end up as non-biodegradable waste which subsequently increases pollution. Moreover, the production of the plastic bottled also involves the burning of oil which results in the emission of carbon dioxide that in turn affects the ecological system. Water bottles are made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that releases toxic chemicals including ethylene oxide and benzene (Vesilind, & DiStefano, 2006). In contrast, tap water does not pollute the environment since the water is available directly from the taps and faucets.

Personally, I know tap water is a better option that bottled water. The fact that water is from a bottle does not make it safer. The bottled water could have fetched at a tap and sealed as bottled water thus exposing the drinker to a higher risk of contamination than tap water. Tap water is monitored and regulated for contamination thus ensuring minimal risk to drinkers. The water is also readily available to all and thus can be provided in schools in limitless and affordable supplies. In contrast, bottled water is unnecessarily expensive, yet tap water is just a fraction of that cost (Mackey, & Boulos, 2004). It is true that there are concerns over the quality of tap water and the risk of contamination. However, tap water can be monitored and tested regularly to ensure they are up to the expected standards.

Conclusion

Water is an essential health commodity that is critical for survival. The question of whether to consume bottled or tap water lies on factors related to the risk of contamination, the cost of the water and the sustainability of the water. Bottled water manufacturers promise their consumers that their bottled water is from springs and or glaciers thus it is bottled at its purest form. The reality, however, is that most bottled water comes from tap water; thus manufacturers dupe consumers with false advertisements. Bottled water is also unnecessarily expensive, yet tap water is affordable and accessible to many. Tap water also guarantees the sustainability of the environment as the production of the water does not undergo numerous process. In contrast, bottled water results to millions of plastic bottles that are non-degradable and choke the environment.

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