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The effect of teachers’ attitude toward inclusion on the practice and success levels of children with and without disabilities in physical education

Problem the study

The law and regulations have provided directions about the inclusion of children with special needs in physical educators teaching classes. This inclusion has caused a tremendous challenge to the physical educators that work strenuously to meet the needs of the children. The concern is about the teachers’ attitude impacts towards the success of the children since they are striving too much.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of children with disabilities (mild to moderate mental disabilities) in the physical education setting to leverage the levels of success attained by the students in comparison to the peers without disabilities.

Research questions
The mode acquiring the data that was considered by the researcher was the PEA TID-III questionnaire. The questionnaire contained a sequence of statements that prompted the teachers to express their attitude belief about teaching the persons with disabilities in their frequent physical education classes. The research questions were confined towards the investigation of the teacher attitude toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes.

The quality and assurance of results
The results of the study were established with the method of collecting data which was the use of a questionnaire. The PEA TID-III questionnaire validity was constructed through the analysis of the principal components of the study. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by estimating the coefficient alpha thus providing valuable and reliable results.

Conclusions
The findings of the study provide a recommendation that the child with disability performance can be linked with the relationship of the teacher attitude towards the child inclusion and the teacher effectiveness. The teachers with positive attitudes at all times gave the disabled children more practice attempts thus working towards the higher level of success. The professionals should consider incorporating the classes that handle the inclusionary issues as well.

Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) definition of validity

The study proofs to remain within the line of observing the principles outlined by Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) in their definition of validity. The researcher undertook the study in a better simplified way by getting confined towards the teacher approaches of conducting the physical education classes for disabled students. Every aspect considered within the study got related to the teachers’ attitude.

The theoretical and observational levels of the study
The study was confined towards the determination of the factors that affects the teacher attitudes towards the students’ performance in physical education. The study drew facts about the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical and how the educator attitudes affect their level of performance. The method of using the PEA TID-III questionnaire provided the mode of confining the participating within the scope of study about the beliefs of the teacher towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in the physical education classes. The study provides a way of understanding of the effects of the negative and positive attitude on the disabled child performance in their endeavors.

The paper objective

The journal was objective. The study was driven by the fact that there is an increase in the belief that the teacher attitudes have a direct influence on the success of the children with disabilities being included in the regular classes. The objective was to provide the understanding of the teacher attitude towards the proof of the belief thus the research was after the delivery of an empirical evidence of the same.

Rigor assurance
The assurance of rigor is well displayed at some point of the study, but at the same time, the study fails to provide the credibility of the responses since the questionnaires were mailed. The possibility of mailing to wrong persons affects the validity of the results. However, the study is defined with a thoroughly reviewed literature review that provides the understanding of the research thus easily appreciating the objective and the purpose of the study.

Recommendations for the development of research findings
The research findings were based on the initial description of the purpose of the research. The basis of developing the findings was to provide the proof over the belief that the teacher attitude towards the children with disabilities has a direct impact on their performances at the class level. Therefore, the research findings were confined towards the subject of the matter.

The quality of the methods used
The methods adopted gave the participants the best way of providing their views with the elimination of anxiety. The questionnaire provided the best data that enabled the researcher to draw the relevant and valid conclusions that provided the best way of understanding the teacher attitude towards the level of success of disabled children in their inclusion in physical education classes.

Opposing arguments and a rationale for the findings in light of the arguments

The descriptive analysis provides the results that seem to final to conquer with the negation that negative attitudes go towards providing the opposite of the positive attitudes. Although the opposing argumentation is not well displayed within the study, there is the slight understanding of the opposing findings that later proves to be valid. The students without disabilities have a higher percentage of successful attempts over disabled ones when under a teacher with positive attitudes despite the fact that the teacher provided the higher percentage of attempts to disabled students.

The alternate and opposing perspectives presented

The alternative presented aspect is about the administration and management of the institutions. The aspects concerning the draw of truth about the recruitment of teachers basing on some factors that are less associated with an attitude such as competence, experience, and others thus influence the disabled child. Such factors also influence the performance level of the children with disabilities.

The common and diverging themes evident
The common aspect of the study is about the teacher attitude about the inclusion of the child with and without disability in physical education classes. However, the study settles towards the provision of understanding that the teacher attitude well influences the performance of the student and the e focus is taken to the disabled child. The teacher attitude influence over child performance is an aspect that has dominated the study, but there is no other theme that is introduced in the research.

The overarching concepts in the field of education are addressed
The law and regulation have come in to provide the equality of the child education development and thus resulting in the inclusion of disabled children in physical education classes. The literature provides the evidence of how the world is giving opportunities to children with disabilities. The study well provides the information about the development of the child regardless of the ability since disability is not inability. However, the study highlights some of the influencing factors towards the disabled child education development and the key factor is the teacher rather educator attitude.

The validity of future research
The future research is not well highlighted within the study, but the possible intended outlined by the researcher was the determination of strategies of dealing with the inclusionary issues. The aspect is great towards ensuring that the practice is well absorbed within institutions. The recommendation highlights the need for focusing on the professional incorporation within the education classes for disabled persons.

The limitations of the study
The study is chained within a thorough literature review that provides a line of showing the negligence of limitations of the study. Regardless of the researcher failing to highlight t the challenges experienced, the observation can show the issue to do with the observation approach limitation during the examination of the student’s responses in the field.

Elementary physical education teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs: A qualitative investigation

Problem the study
The issue outlined within the study is the determination of the implications that the physical education teacher education (PETE) programs influence their products in the child development. The law has identified the need for including children with special needs in the general physical education and the concern is about the deliverables of the teachers. The teacher attitude has been a concern, and thus the focus is to study how the teacher attitude affects their teaching mode in result evaluating this influence on the child performance.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the research was to identify the teachers with positive attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities using the Physical Education Attitudes Towards Individuals with disability (PEATID) approach. At the same time, it aimed at investigating the formation of the teachers’ attitude and how the attitudes affected their teaching of the disabled students.

Gun control

Graphite debacle stands as one of the attractive entries in China (Editorial Committee of Mineral Deposits of China, 1990). At the same time, this industry presents many challenges to managers as well as leaders. As a result, there is always need for the company to cope with boundary spanning, know large systems interactions and thinking for better future. Senge’s (2008, 2010) insights stand as major guidelines when it comes to enhancing new thinking and choices in the industry. Hence, when what, the management knows become less fulfilling to the desired need, going beyond the traditional boundary of knowledge is important(Ulhøi, Madsen & Kjær, 1999).

China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc. has remained a major player in China’s graphite extractive industry for over thirty years (Mertens, 2015). With a long period of operation, the company has immersed a lot of knowledge as well as resources in the extractive industry. This has made it to become the pioneer in manufacturing as well as distributing graphite products including bipolar plates, electrodes, and precision machined graphite components as well as graphene products in China through its subsidiary. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc. has developed a broad client base globally, and its products are highly necessary for energy storage, steel, non-ferrous, semiconductor, metallurgy, PV, optical fiber as well as chemicals industries. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc. Has been all focused on increasing its competitiveness to capture a global share of graphite as well as carbon industries by enhancing its management, research as well as development teams. It has also remained keen on enhancing its existing technology as well as production models by advancing in new technologies as well as manufacturing strategies.

Despite this succeeds, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc. Leaders and managers must leverage collaboration across traditional boundaries to come up with a detailed view of multiple systems interactions and common view of desired better future. In this respect, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc needs to develop special expertise in the nexus of sustainable development with extractive industries. The reason is that there is nowhere else where stakes are higher compared to extractive industries. In many cases, such enterprises can become a development springboard or a source social degradation, corruption as well as and environmental disturbance (Heizer & Render, 2013). Its leaders and managers must research on trends as well as good practices including working with governments, other companies, civil society, development partners as well as communities for purposes of developing and implementing strategies that ensure China and other community’s benefits.

Extractive industries always pose unique challenges to managers regarding sustainable development. This industry demands to make urgent solutions which in most cases difficult when compared to other sectors. Some of the challenges that the management and leadership must address to ensure collaboration with other actors include specific challenges such as asymmetry of knowledge as well as skills between government and other companies. They must also address the pervasive confidentiality extractive sector, the non-renewability of the resources, the traditional ‘enclave’ model of the sector, the risk of Dutch disease as well as the historical records of human rights and environmental shortfalls (Sanford, 2011). Leaders and managers can also leverage collaboration across traditional boundaries by maximizing on potential benefits for both parties. Extractive industries always have the potential transform their countries (Madu & Kuei, 2012). Therefore, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders, and Managers can leverage collaboration by aligning its policies with that of the country, investor, regulatory and legal framework of collaboration, and other institutions to find mutually satisfactory outcomes.

Senge’s (2008, 2010) insights on what he calls new thinking and choices underscoring that the activities people learn by rote clearly do not work. Hence, people must collaborate with others to come up with new approaches. Through his touching presentation, Senge articulates three puzzles that demand systems thinking. He also discusses why it is so vital but seems difficult for people. This applies to China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and managers who need to enhance their view and a way to solutions that enhance its sustainability. As leaders and managers, they are born with innate systems intelligence to come up with a better future (The United States, 1977).

The first part that leaders of this company have to leverage for collaboration is Interdependence. As leaders and managers of an extractive industry, they do not exist alone. They need to devise an environment of extraordinary interdependence. This is an important aspect of company sustainability management (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2008).

The other area that China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and managers need to leverage collaboration relates to addressing issues of Systems ignorance. The reason is that as leaders, they won’t fully understand the interdependencies of the industry they operate in. Therefore, collaborative addressing of ignorance on the extractive industry will help the company not to easily make choices that do not serve them well in the long-term (Brady & Palgrave Connect, 2005). Take for instance the effects of pollution effects of extractive industry where the environment can be polluted. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc needs to collaborate with environmental conservatives for better sustainability of the environment. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc needs to leverage collaboration for environmental stability while producing systemic outcomes that goes beyond their consistent produce. Extractive industry has many dynamics that are always delicate and needs great keenness (Hansen, & Brown, 2011). It cannot be disputed that the company loves systems intelligence, but the various can only be closed if the company management and leadership discover it. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and Managers have been trying to leverage collaboration across traditional boundaries by defining a comprehensive view of multiple systems interactions. This has been a plus for them.

In particular, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders, and managers has always been negotiating support to resource rich, Low and Middle-Income Chinese society (Franks, 2015). China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and Managers leadership have a series of meetings of negotiation support providers as a way of creating forums to address common challenges as well as opportunities to facilitate enhanced coordination among its stakeholders. The major aim of this collaboration has been to enhance the availability, accessibility as well as technical assistance and training quality for host stakeholders and partners at all stages of preparation, negotiation as well as the implementation of large-scale deals.

China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and managers have leveraged collaboration across traditional boundaries through Carbon and Graphite Producers Discussion Group. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and Managers have knowledge partner to Carbon and Graphite Producers, co-organized and sponsored by Global Initiative as well as international Secretariat. Collaboration beyond traditional boundary aims at helping current and emerging graphite extractors to think critically about the various policy options in the initial and continuous phases of exploration and extraction or restructuring their platforms (Hamschmidt, 2007).

China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and Managers need to also leverage collaboration across traditional boundaries by initiating comparative lessons for extractive industry Investments as well as Large Land-Based Industrial Investments. China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and managers need to leverage stakeholders to explore efficient governance approaches for extractive industry investments as well as large land-based industrial investments. Particularly, leaders of this company need to learn from other external actors in the industry on why some good governance efforts can more advance in a specific sector and not in the other. The company leadership and management must also learn from other external actors in ways that can be done to advance governance in graphite extractive industry.

China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and Managers must also be at the forefront in learning from International extractive Investment Conferences. In the current century, many companies are leveraging collaboration beyond their traditional boundaries through taking advantages of international conferences on the industry (Zhexembayeva, 2014). Since this is the best way to improve extractive systems, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc Leaders and managers need to host and attend International Investment Conferences on graphite as well as related extractive industries. Such conferences bring together many stakeholders including governments, corporate executives, academics, investors as well as civil society for purposes of forward-looking policy discussions on critical issues for sustainable development (Cohen, 2011).

To conclude, China Carbon Graphite Group, Inc stands as a company that has enjoyed vast dominance is Chinese graphite industry. This company has been utilizing its expertise to make the company successes. At the same time, the company needs to continue leveraging collaboration beyond traditional boundaries for expertise, innovation, and sustainability (Sokka, & Valuation Tek nil linen tutkimuskeskus, 2011). Doing this increased efficiency, corporate social responsibility and abiding by national as well as international extractive industry regulation.

Enterprise Architecture for Health Insurance Exchange

The portal design shall take the following interface
Website Company Name (AGRI- POWER PORTAL)

Links navigation Link
Home

Services
Commercial
Accounts
About us
Login
Logout
Farm Chemicals
Farm tools
Farm projects
Horticulture
Livestock
Livestock Faming

Bee keeping
Seeds
Transport
Comments
Agricultural Dash Board Portal Major Display Area
Figure1 : The portal Design for Agricultural Based Enterprise
The agriculture based portal shall provide web-based services to the esteemed customers and the potential customer. The agribusiness portal shall contain three structural designs to incorporate the services to the clients. The portal is a dynamic website that provides all agricultural services across the world. The portal provides services on farm-based services like purchasing chemicals, use of chemicals and consultation services. The portal has horticulture farming, livestock farming, and beekeeping services. The display area provides streaming advertisements on projects and the news about agriculture.

Simple Information Exchanges
The secure health information exchange supports the following services to the clients

Document querying and retrieving
Direct messaging via PUSH technology
The system composes discrete data and information from multiple CCDs that contain detailed data from multiple sources. The system provides data sharing techniques to subscribers through the data mining and data warehousing approach (Bocciarelli, & D’Ambrogio, 2014).

Part B: Integrated Architectures
Enterprise integration for Business Services module supports enterprise process and goals through providing multiplatform programming support platform. The system integrates the business functions using VMware technology that acts as the middleware to support different platforms in other programming languages like XML, COBOL, Java, Microsoft Dot Net and others (Juric, et al…, 2010).

Legacy applications include the business application service and infrastructure services. The modules provide the integration of the database services through the modification of data and information. The sessions support data and information conversion to different formats. The strategies get applied during database development process, data mining activities and during data migration from one database design infrastructure to another.

B2B Integration and management services provide secure transfer and sharing of information between the public and private business enterprises across the world (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system allows collaboration of business enterprises through subscribing to the Intranet cloud services. The platform supports the integration and interagency communications across the globe. The system supports the G2G systems that allow effective government interventions (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system facilitates communication between the government agencies. The Interaction services systems support the intra-agency relations through the elimination of barriers for infrastructure principles and standard specified by the EAI policies. Through the interaction services module, inter-agency communications get approved enabling collaboration between people processes and information. The NIEM (National Information Exchange), development services platform, integrates the communication development environments through equalizing sanctions and standards from different agencies.

The system allows designing and creation of solutions depicted within different business entities. The collaboration allows acceptability of the various development standards for business entities to enter into the global market. The NIEM platform links the B2B systems to facilitate mutual interrelationships between different business operations (Dorn, et al…, 2009).

ESB Exploration: The enterprise service bus allows effective communication link between different enterprise activities and function to facilitate effective data and information transfer. All network and communication protocols get implemented through accommodating all sources of networks topologies and standards within the bus (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The bus offer powerful encapsulation, encryption and information hiding techniques to facilitate secure source to destination delivery of data and information (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The Mule architecture serves more effectively and efficiently compared to email based protocols. The message is secure via mule architecture and supports UDDI messaging protocols. The ESB architecture supports the orchestration, transformation, transportation mediation and non-functional consistency that form the core integration principles (Chandrasekaran, 2010).

Smart enterprises the smart enterprise capability is maintained via the incorporation of the extranet and intranet services that facilitate the extraction of data and information from different databases. The system allows digging of data from various databases through data mining techniques. The system supports the smart enterprise feature like intelligent decision support system. The enterprise business system implements the intelligence support capabilities through the use of access service model and the service registry database. The data and the information are supplied through cloud computing services that link the enterprise system to the World Wide Web interfaces. The Virtual technology that implements the industrial formats like the X12, the EDIFACTS, the SWIFT, the ACORD, the HIPAA and the HLA have been applied to support IBM web sphere transformation extension (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The platforms act as the universal transformation engine.