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The effect of teachers’ attitude toward inclusion on the practice and success levels of children with and without disabilities in physical education

Problem the study

The law and regulations have provided directions about the inclusion of children with special needs in physical educators teaching classes. This inclusion has caused a tremendous challenge to the physical educators that work strenuously to meet the needs of the children. The concern is about the teachers’ attitude impacts towards the success of the children since they are striving too much.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of children with disabilities (mild to moderate mental disabilities) in the physical education setting to leverage the levels of success attained by the students in comparison to the peers without disabilities.

Research questions
The mode acquiring the data that was considered by the researcher was the PEA TID-III questionnaire. The questionnaire contained a sequence of statements that prompted the teachers to express their attitude belief about teaching the persons with disabilities in their frequent physical education classes. The research questions were confined towards the investigation of the teacher attitude toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes.

The quality and assurance of results
The results of the study were established with the method of collecting data which was the use of a questionnaire. The PEA TID-III questionnaire validity was constructed through the analysis of the principal components of the study. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by estimating the coefficient alpha thus providing valuable and reliable results.

Conclusions
The findings of the study provide a recommendation that the child with disability performance can be linked with the relationship of the teacher attitude towards the child inclusion and the teacher effectiveness. The teachers with positive attitudes at all times gave the disabled children more practice attempts thus working towards the higher level of success. The professionals should consider incorporating the classes that handle the inclusionary issues as well.

Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) definition of validity

The study proofs to remain within the line of observing the principles outlined by Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) in their definition of validity. The researcher undertook the study in a better simplified way by getting confined towards the teacher approaches of conducting the physical education classes for disabled students. Every aspect considered within the study got related to the teachers’ attitude.

The theoretical and observational levels of the study
The study was confined towards the determination of the factors that affects the teacher attitudes towards the students’ performance in physical education. The study drew facts about the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical and how the educator attitudes affect their level of performance. The method of using the PEA TID-III questionnaire provided the mode of confining the participating within the scope of study about the beliefs of the teacher towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in the physical education classes. The study provides a way of understanding of the effects of the negative and positive attitude on the disabled child performance in their endeavors.

The paper objective

The journal was objective. The study was driven by the fact that there is an increase in the belief that the teacher attitudes have a direct influence on the success of the children with disabilities being included in the regular classes. The objective was to provide the understanding of the teacher attitude towards the proof of the belief thus the research was after the delivery of an empirical evidence of the same.

Rigor assurance
The assurance of rigor is well displayed at some point of the study, but at the same time, the study fails to provide the credibility of the responses since the questionnaires were mailed. The possibility of mailing to wrong persons affects the validity of the results. However, the study is defined with a thoroughly reviewed literature review that provides the understanding of the research thus easily appreciating the objective and the purpose of the study.

Recommendations for the development of research findings
The research findings were based on the initial description of the purpose of the research. The basis of developing the findings was to provide the proof over the belief that the teacher attitude towards the children with disabilities has a direct impact on their performances at the class level. Therefore, the research findings were confined towards the subject of the matter.

The quality of the methods used
The methods adopted gave the participants the best way of providing their views with the elimination of anxiety. The questionnaire provided the best data that enabled the researcher to draw the relevant and valid conclusions that provided the best way of understanding the teacher attitude towards the level of success of disabled children in their inclusion in physical education classes.

Opposing arguments and a rationale for the findings in light of the arguments

The descriptive analysis provides the results that seem to final to conquer with the negation that negative attitudes go towards providing the opposite of the positive attitudes. Although the opposing argumentation is not well displayed within the study, there is the slight understanding of the opposing findings that later proves to be valid. The students without disabilities have a higher percentage of successful attempts over disabled ones when under a teacher with positive attitudes despite the fact that the teacher provided the higher percentage of attempts to disabled students.

The alternate and opposing perspectives presented

The alternative presented aspect is about the administration and management of the institutions. The aspects concerning the draw of truth about the recruitment of teachers basing on some factors that are less associated with an attitude such as competence, experience, and others thus influence the disabled child. Such factors also influence the performance level of the children with disabilities.

The common and diverging themes evident
The common aspect of the study is about the teacher attitude about the inclusion of the child with and without disability in physical education classes. However, the study settles towards the provision of understanding that the teacher attitude well influences the performance of the student and the e focus is taken to the disabled child. The teacher attitude influence over child performance is an aspect that has dominated the study, but there is no other theme that is introduced in the research.

The overarching concepts in the field of education are addressed
The law and regulation have come in to provide the equality of the child education development and thus resulting in the inclusion of disabled children in physical education classes. The literature provides the evidence of how the world is giving opportunities to children with disabilities. The study well provides the information about the development of the child regardless of the ability since disability is not inability. However, the study highlights some of the influencing factors towards the disabled child education development and the key factor is the teacher rather educator attitude.

The validity of future research
The future research is not well highlighted within the study, but the possible intended outlined by the researcher was the determination of strategies of dealing with the inclusionary issues. The aspect is great towards ensuring that the practice is well absorbed within institutions. The recommendation highlights the need for focusing on the professional incorporation within the education classes for disabled persons.

The limitations of the study
The study is chained within a thorough literature review that provides a line of showing the negligence of limitations of the study. Regardless of the researcher failing to highlight t the challenges experienced, the observation can show the issue to do with the observation approach limitation during the examination of the student’s responses in the field.

Elementary physical education teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs: A qualitative investigation

Problem the study
The issue outlined within the study is the determination of the implications that the physical education teacher education (PETE) programs influence their products in the child development. The law has identified the need for including children with special needs in the general physical education and the concern is about the deliverables of the teachers. The teacher attitude has been a concern, and thus the focus is to study how the teacher attitude affects their teaching mode in result evaluating this influence on the child performance.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the research was to identify the teachers with positive attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities using the Physical Education Attitudes Towards Individuals with disability (PEATID) approach. At the same time, it aimed at investigating the formation of the teachers’ attitude and how the attitudes affected their teaching of the disabled students.

Siemens and Halske

Introduction
From the company’s humble beginning as the telegraph-bauanstalt von Siemens and Halske in the year 1847, the company has managed to grow into the second biggest employer in Germany, having more than 427,000 employees worldwide by 2009. The company’s 150 years history is characterized by the ingenious inventions as well as the trend-setting developments. With time, the company diversified their business to include a wide assortment of electrical engineering applications. The company’s earliest specialty was on the heavy current engineering which encompassed finding the means to satisfy the growing power requirements of the contemporary industrial machinery. Through their extensive expertise in electrical engineering, the company expanded its operations to encompass the generation of electric power. Although most of the company’s initial power plants relied on coal for their operations, the company was additionally undertaking major investments in R&D on the alternative sources of energy. The company continued with the diversification of its operations even further from the mid 19810s where it expanded to wind energy. Alternative energy generation technologies continue to be the major priority at Siemens, with their emphasis being on solar as well as wind applications.

The company’s energy sector encompasses five divisions which include renewable energy, fossil fuel generation, oil & gas, power transmission as well as power distribution.

What Problems are they facing In the Case?
The current situation that Siemens is facing relates to the formulation of a strategy to guide in the best position that the company will adopt in their effort to dominate the global renewable energy market. The main hurdles revolve around the fact that the stakes are high as a result of the recent financial turmoil as well as the credit crunch that are making it harder for them to reach fast decisions. The decisions that the company needs to make include whether the company should make its best guess about the future by investing deeply in a limited number of options. Additionally, it is imperative that they decide on whether they should cast their net wider and thus hedge their bets on the diverse types of alternative energy. Siemens needs to decide on whether they should focus on a narrower field and what strategy are they going to adopt in deciding on the type of alternative energy that is going to be their leading technology in the future. It is imperative that they decide on whether it is possible for them to foresee any new disruptive innovations and additionally take advantage of them.

Additionally, they need to decide on whether they can pick any alternative technology and additionally ensure that they make it a winner. The last challenge that Siemens were facing is on deciding the manner they are going to compete in the new fields. The decisions revolve on deciding whether the company shall be going alone, develop proprietary knowledge and consequently keeping the probable profits to themselves, with full knowledge that they run the risk of going too far on the wrong path. Conversely, they need to decide on whether they should base their focus on the acquiring of smaller companies that have developed promising technological advancements, aiding them down the development path. Additionally, it is necessary for Siemens to decide on whether making alliances will make it possible for them to share both the returns as well as the risks with a partner thus becoming their optional solution to the domination of the global alternative energy industry.

Alternative Energy Opportunities Siemens Pursues
There are various types of alternative energy opportunities that Siemens can pursue to realize their global success in the alternative energy sector. The logic behind the clamor for the alternative energies is the use of the natural based resources such as water, the wind, solar radiation or the heat for the creation of energy other than the reliance on the carbon-based fuels.

1. Wind energy is one of the options that Siemens could venture into as a form of alternative source of energy

The common assertion about the wind energy topic is that although it is some disadvantages, it is one of the fasted growing alternate energy sectors and is additionally a trend that should continue. The company has consequently staked a firm presence in the wind energy turbine business, having won some large contracts for the installation of both of as well as onshore wind turbines. On the global arena, the company is the fifth largest installer of wind turbine power by the year 2009, aiming to the second by the year 2012. The portfolio of the company encompasses the diverse stages of wind-turbine development inclusive of the deigning of the components as well as the system, manufacturing, R&D, installation as well as maintenance. These activities have managed to earn the company approximately 19 billion Euros in revenues in the 2008 fiscal year, which accounted for approximately a quarter of the company’s overall revenues. The fact that Siemens has the foundation that is necessary for the development of these alternative energies presents an excellent platform for them to undertake the investment in the wind power energy opportunity.

The additional reason as to why Siemens should venture into the wind power sector is the fact that they have few competitors as a result of the technological complexities of the business. The fact that the market offers a high future potential about the industry growth implies that other competitors are going to enter into the competition mainly from China. However the fact that wind power requires constant maintenance implies that the Siemens will have long-term service contracts, an attribute that makes it instrumental for them to enter into the wind power sector.

Solar energy is the other opportunity that Siemens needs to adopt, considering that the company is already the market leader in the turnkey CSP plants. In this case, Siemens would be able to leverage its plant size, their experience in the development of power plants, as well as the reliability, being a long term service provider effectively. The main reason that the company should target as they undertake this opportunity is the long term servicing required for the generators and turbines long after the completion of the plant’s construction.
Hydropower is the additional opportunity that Siemens needs to capture. The fact that the company has been a strong player in the hydrometric power dams implies that they have the experience that can set them apart from their competition. There numerous opportunities for the company to expand into such as in the US where the company government has designed policies to increase their low costs hydroelectric power production. The US offers excellent expansion opportunities as there are more than 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped capacity of approximately 30,000MW, which offer an opportunity for Siemens to introduce their expertise.
Geothermal power is the additional opportunity that Siemens can exploit because the company has an expansive wealth of expertise on electric energy. In the production of this energy, two shafts are drilled deep into the earth core, with water being pumped in through one shaft and extracting energy through the other shaft inform of steam. The main attribute that makes the technology an excellent option for Siemens is the fact that it can be installed in any area that requires energy. Additionally, geothermal plants need minimal amounts of fresh water as well as external fuel sources and their layouts makes them highly scalable.
How Aggressively Should Siemens Pursue These Opportunities?
Siemens should need to pursue these opportunities with aggressiveness. For instance on the wind power opportunity, they should attack the Europe market with utmost aggressiveness considering that they are among the best in the region as well as the fact that are minimal transportation costs. About the expansion to other regions in the world, they should be the first movers of the technologies as they already possess the technology as well as the R&D attributes. Waiting to introduce their technologies will only serve to diminish the market for their alternative energy. The advantage that makes it imperative for Siemens to be first movers of these alternative energy technology opportunities is they already have a reputation for being the best in the world as well as the fact that they have exceptional R&D strategies in the same sector.

Should They Go It Alone, Form Strategic Alliances Or Pursue Acquisitions?

On whether Siemens needs to undertake these opportunities either alone, form alliances or acquisitions, various factors are taken into consideration. In the case of wind energy, Siemens possess the best technology, but the costs of transporting these turbines are very high, a factor that limits their expansions. The fact that there are few established competitors in the industry for Siemens to acquire or engage in alliances implies that their best option is to set up industries in their desired markets.

Regarding solar energy, the fact that the company has the best turnkey CSP plants in the world makes acquiring the existing companies in their desired markets the best option as they will not have to share their profits. Siemens has minimal technologies in the hydropower generation and thus pursuing alliances with the established players in their desired markets is a worthwhile plan where they will be supplying technologies and expertise. Geothermal powers involve minimal costs and through their technology as their main bargaining, Siemens should enter their desired markets alone.

Conclusion
Siemens is facing a critical point in their survival in the alliterative energy production sector. The company possesses some of the best technologies in the world relating to the production alternative energy, and the contemporary market challenges are making it imperative for them to make decisions that will see them enter excel in the sector. Some of the decisions that the company has to make revolve around the number as well as the type of alternative energies they will be pursuing. From the assessment of the case, it is clear that wind power, solar energy, geothermal power as well as hydropower present the company with the best opportunities to succeed in the alternative energy markets.

Tenet Healthcare.

The Healthcare Financing Administration notes the annual health care expenditure in the United State has exceeded $ 3.1 trillion. 10% of these expenditures ($ 100 billion) are government and health insurance companies losses due to fraudulent healthcare transactions. Timely detections and prevention of these fraudulent transactions and abuses can help recover the huge amount of resources to medical institutions and patients thus improving the quality of care and decreasing the cost of healthcare for taxpayers. Inability to detect fraud can become an extremely costly, painful and damaging problem to the organization and thus the need for an effective fraud detection system (Mcmahon & Chopra, 2013). In 2012, Tenet health Corporation was ordered to pay the United States F$ 42.75 million to settle accusations of violating the False Claims Act by overbilling the federal Medicare Program (Department of Justice, 2012). This action research will discuss how healthcare billings happen in the United States and will give details of the fraudulent billing occurring in Tenet Healthcare Corporation. I will show the impact of this fraudulent billing to the stock prices and financial statements of Tenet, showing that they directly impact the shareholders finances having their stocks at Tenet

Tenet Health Corporation (Tenet) is an investor-owned health care services corporation. Tenet Health corporation operates 77 acute care hospitals, 173 outpatient centres, 5 health plans and 6 accountable care organizations. In addition, the corporation operates Conifer Health Solutions that provides health business process solutions in fifteen centres that serve clients in 43 states.

The study will help Tenet develop a fraud detection system that will sufficiently address it billing process to avoid future billing errors that will ruin the reputation of the company and destroy its financial base. In addition, the study will offer insight to other health care institutions on factors that precipitate fraudulent cases in institutions and the financial implications of the fraudulent case.

The study will be based on the Cressey Fraud Triangle. Three components of the triangle include pressure, opportunity and rationalization. Pressure relates to the financial difficulties such as a large amount of credit card debt, overwhelming financial burdens, and financial difficulties. Opportunity to fraud exists when an employee discovers a weakness in the organization’s ant-fraud controls. Rationalization is the psychological process whereby individuals who have committed fraud convince themselves either that the act is not wrong or that even though it may be wrong, it will be corrected because they will eventually return the money. In addition, employees may justify the fraud by taking the attitude that they deserve the stolen money (Goldman, 2009)

A comprehensive detection and prevention system should have the right combination of financial analysis, business/relationship analysis, medical insight and analysis, detection of changing behaviours and a feedback loop (Abbasi, Albrecht, Vance, & Hansen, 2012). Therefore, the study will primarily focus on evaluating the effectiveness of this component in Tenet. In addition, the study will focus on analyzing the effect of the fraudulent on the stock prices and financial performance of the Tenet. The study will focus on the financial statement fraud and the stock prices of the company during the time the fraud occurred. Financial statement fraud is mainly dedicated to the fact that financial statement audit ensures that the financial reports of the company are free from material misstatement and fraud. A firms’ propensity to commit a fraud depends on the expected benefits and cost of engaging in the fraudulent. The expected cost of the fraudulent has two components that include the probability of the fraud detection and the penalty upon detection.

The financial statements of Tenet will be evaluated to identify the misstatement and the impact of those misstatements, the investment trend of the company and the stock prices of the Company stock. The data will be obtained from the annual reports including Form 10 K and other strategic documents. The reports will be analyzed through various econometric models to evaluate how the fraud case affected their trend. A five year period analysis will be conducted. In addition to the financial econometric analysis of the financial reports, a detailed key informant interview will be conducted with stockholders of the company who will be selected randomly. The interviews will be conducted through open-ended questions to allow the respondents to disclose as much information as possible. The interviews will substantial the findings of the analysis. The findings of the study will be corresponded to Tenet Corporation in the form of a report. In addition, the result will be published and disseminated to online databases to benefit other scholars and organizations.

The research will be conducted with the authority and supervision of the University Committee. In addition, consent will sort with the Tenet Corporation. The current CEO and the chief finance officer will be contacted advance to approve the research. Some of the key ethical issues to be addressed in the research is the confidentially of any confidential information accessed during the research and limiting the finding of the study to academic use. The key limitations of the study are its reliance on the documented reports. The study will not allow the research to evaluate the raw financial data of the company but will rely on data from SEC listing and other stock sites such as NYSE.