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The effect of teachers’ attitude toward inclusion on the practice and success levels of children with and without disabilities in physical education

Problem the study

The law and regulations have provided directions about the inclusion of children with special needs in physical educators teaching classes. This inclusion has caused a tremendous challenge to the physical educators that work strenuously to meet the needs of the children. The concern is about the teachers’ attitude impacts towards the success of the children since they are striving too much.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of children with disabilities (mild to moderate mental disabilities) in the physical education setting to leverage the levels of success attained by the students in comparison to the peers without disabilities.

Research questions
The mode acquiring the data that was considered by the researcher was the PEA TID-III questionnaire. The questionnaire contained a sequence of statements that prompted the teachers to express their attitude belief about teaching the persons with disabilities in their frequent physical education classes. The research questions were confined towards the investigation of the teacher attitude toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes.

The quality and assurance of results
The results of the study were established with the method of collecting data which was the use of a questionnaire. The PEA TID-III questionnaire validity was constructed through the analysis of the principal components of the study. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by estimating the coefficient alpha thus providing valuable and reliable results.

The findings of the study provide a recommendation that the child with disability performance can be linked with the relationship of the teacher attitude towards the child inclusion and the teacher effectiveness. The teachers with positive attitudes at all times gave the disabled children more practice attempts thus working towards the higher level of success. The professionals should consider incorporating the classes that handle the inclusionary issues as well.

Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) definition of validity

The study proofs to remain within the line of observing the principles outlined by Trochim and Donnellyâ’s (2008) in their definition of validity. The researcher undertook the study in a better simplified way by getting confined towards the teacher approaches of conducting the physical education classes for disabled students. Every aspect considered within the study got related to the teachers’ attitude.

The theoretical and observational levels of the study
The study was confined towards the determination of the factors that affects the teacher attitudes towards the students’ performance in physical education. The study drew facts about the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical and how the educator attitudes affect their level of performance. The method of using the PEA TID-III questionnaire provided the mode of confining the participating within the scope of study about the beliefs of the teacher towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in the physical education classes. The study provides a way of understanding of the effects of the negative and positive attitude on the disabled child performance in their endeavors.

The paper objective

The journal was objective. The study was driven by the fact that there is an increase in the belief that the teacher attitudes have a direct influence on the success of the children with disabilities being included in the regular classes. The objective was to provide the understanding of the teacher attitude towards the proof of the belief thus the research was after the delivery of an empirical evidence of the same.

Rigor assurance
The assurance of rigor is well displayed at some point of the study, but at the same time, the study fails to provide the credibility of the responses since the questionnaires were mailed. The possibility of mailing to wrong persons affects the validity of the results. However, the study is defined with a thoroughly reviewed literature review that provides the understanding of the research thus easily appreciating the objective and the purpose of the study.

Recommendations for the development of research findings
The research findings were based on the initial description of the purpose of the research. The basis of developing the findings was to provide the proof over the belief that the teacher attitude towards the children with disabilities has a direct impact on their performances at the class level. Therefore, the research findings were confined towards the subject of the matter.

The quality of the methods used
The methods adopted gave the participants the best way of providing their views with the elimination of anxiety. The questionnaire provided the best data that enabled the researcher to draw the relevant and valid conclusions that provided the best way of understanding the teacher attitude towards the level of success of disabled children in their inclusion in physical education classes.

Opposing arguments and a rationale for the findings in light of the arguments

The descriptive analysis provides the results that seem to final to conquer with the negation that negative attitudes go towards providing the opposite of the positive attitudes. Although the opposing argumentation is not well displayed within the study, there is the slight understanding of the opposing findings that later proves to be valid. The students without disabilities have a higher percentage of successful attempts over disabled ones when under a teacher with positive attitudes despite the fact that the teacher provided the higher percentage of attempts to disabled students.

The alternate and opposing perspectives presented

The alternative presented aspect is about the administration and management of the institutions. The aspects concerning the draw of truth about the recruitment of teachers basing on some factors that are less associated with an attitude such as competence, experience, and others thus influence the disabled child. Such factors also influence the performance level of the children with disabilities.

The common and diverging themes evident
The common aspect of the study is about the teacher attitude about the inclusion of the child with and without disability in physical education classes. However, the study settles towards the provision of understanding that the teacher attitude well influences the performance of the student and the e focus is taken to the disabled child. The teacher attitude influence over child performance is an aspect that has dominated the study, but there is no other theme that is introduced in the research.

The overarching concepts in the field of education are addressed
The law and regulation have come in to provide the equality of the child education development and thus resulting in the inclusion of disabled children in physical education classes. The literature provides the evidence of how the world is giving opportunities to children with disabilities. The study well provides the information about the development of the child regardless of the ability since disability is not inability. However, the study highlights some of the influencing factors towards the disabled child education development and the key factor is the teacher rather educator attitude.

The validity of future research
The future research is not well highlighted within the study, but the possible intended outlined by the researcher was the determination of strategies of dealing with the inclusionary issues. The aspect is great towards ensuring that the practice is well absorbed within institutions. The recommendation highlights the need for focusing on the professional incorporation within the education classes for disabled persons.

The limitations of the study
The study is chained within a thorough literature review that provides a line of showing the negligence of limitations of the study. Regardless of the researcher failing to highlight t the challenges experienced, the observation can show the issue to do with the observation approach limitation during the examination of the student’s responses in the field.

Elementary physical education teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs: A qualitative investigation

Problem the study
The issue outlined within the study is the determination of the implications that the physical education teacher education (PETE) programs influence their products in the child development. The law has identified the need for including children with special needs in the general physical education and the concern is about the deliverables of the teachers. The teacher attitude has been a concern, and thus the focus is to study how the teacher attitude affects their teaching mode in result evaluating this influence on the child performance.

Purpose of the research
The purpose of the research was to identify the teachers with positive attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities using the Physical Education Attitudes Towards Individuals with disability (PEATID) approach. At the same time, it aimed at investigating the formation of the teachers’ attitude and how the attitudes affected their teaching of the disabled students.